The cornea is the circular, transparent layer right in the front of the eyeball. It is normally crystal clear, and allows almost all of the light falling on it to pass through.

Modern day ophthalmology has come a long way from just a torch light examination of the eye.

At CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI, the latest technology being used in Ophthalmology can accurately map and quantify each and every layer of the eye giving the Ophthalmologist an unprecedented insight into the diseases affecting the eye.

Needless to say, such advancements have transformed Cornea practice and have brought it to its current standards at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI. At Laxmi Eye Hospital we strive to be at the cutting edge of technological innovations in Ophthalmology to be able to pass on the benefits to our patients. We are well recognized for cornea treatment in Mumbai.  Our Cornea department boasts of having


At CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI ,an instrument which can rapidly scan the cornea and accurately determine its curvatures and shapes in a matter of minutes. This technique called “Corneal Topography/Tomography” which simply means “mapping the Cornea” has wide spread application in diagnosing and monitoring Keratoconus progression, performing refractive surgery (LASIK etc), planning cataract surgery with high end lenses and contact lens fitting.

I trace (Aberrometer):
While Oculyser detemines the structure of the Cornea at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI, the Itrace maps its function. By projecting a series of precisely arranged and monitored rays of light into the eye the iTrace can determine how well the Cornea, and the eye as a whole, focusses the light. Laxmi Eye Institute is proud to be the first centre in western India to adopt this technology.

At CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI The information derived from this instrument can guide both laser refractive surgery (LASIK and PRK) to correct the shape of your cornea and help your doctor to choose a lens best suited for your eye after cataract surgery.

Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT):
Imagine an instrument which can give a layer by layer analysis of the ‘half-a- millimeter thick’ Cornea. The ASOCT at Laxmi Eye Institute does just that, and more. It can show crystal clear images of the disease process and can tell the Cornea specialist how deep does the disease lie in relation to the surface of the Cornea.At CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI, this makes planning a corneal surgery very easy for the Cornea specialist.

Specular Microscope:
From the layer down to the cell. A specular microscope can actually take sharp photographs of the Endothelial Cells which are important to maintain the clarity of the cornea. Its can not only show the shape and size of these cells but also can give accurate measurements of the cell density, volume and area of the cells. At CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI this information guides the Cornea specialists to identify people at risk of losing corneal clarity and an appropriate treatment strategy can be reached at.

Corneal transplantation, also known as Keratoplasty, is a procedure of replacing the diseased Cornea (the transparent tissue which forms the outer cover of the eye) with a healthy one from a donor. Corneal transplantation can be done for patients with different types of diseases of the cornea provided that all inner structures of the eye are healthy and functioning well.

What are the types of corneal transplantation?
Full thickness corneal transplantation, known as Penetrating Keratoplasty; is the oldest, most time tested and the most commonly performed surgery in which the whole of the patients’ cornea is replaced with that of a donor.

However, scientists and cornea specialists world over realised that replacing full thickness of the cornea is a wastage of precious donor tissue for diseases which involve only a part of the patient’s eye. This led to the development of modern partial thickness transplant procedures, known as Lamellar Keratoplasty. In Lamellar Keratoplasty procedures, only the dieased layers of the patient’s cornea and are replaced with similar healthy layer from a donor and the healthy layers are retained.

This leads to faster visual recovery, lesser duration and frequency of medications post op and lesser number of follow ups and complications. It also allows the Cornea specialists to split one donor cornea into two parts and treat two potential patients /recipients thus reducing the demand for donor tissues and lesser wastage.

Cornea specialists at Laxmi Eye Hospital  are well versed with all the modern tranplantation techniques. The patients can reap the benefits of this expertise.

Which corneal diseases can be treated by transplantation?
Most of the corneal diseases like non healing infections, swelling and cloudiness of the cornea, abnormal shape of cornea, abnormal deposits and white scars and spots after injury or infection can be treated by transplantation. The vision recovery of the patients is good after corneal transplantation provided the inner structures of the eye are healthy and functioning well.

How can I get a corneal transplantation at Laxmi Eye Hospital ?
Laxmi Eye Hospital is a government recognised, and Human Organ Transplant Act (HOTA) accredited Keratoplasty center. To avail this treatment, a patient simply has to book an appointment to see the Cornea specialist. A careful and detailed examination is carried out in the Cornea department and after ensuring suitability for transplantation and determining the type of transplantation, the patient is enrolled on our register for transplantation. As soon as Laxmi Eye Bank recieves a donor corneal tissue which is suitable to the patient’s needs he or she is contacted and invited to come to the institute within a day or two to get the cornea transplanted. Our counsellors, constantly keep in touch with the patients and relatives to update them about the proceedings.We are well recognized for cornea treatment in Mumbai.

Do you implant prosthetic corneas?
Yes, at Laxmi Eye Hospital we implant highly specialized ‘keratoprostheses”, like the Boston keratoprosthesis, LVP keratoprosthesis, and others. This surgery is suitable for patients who have undergone multiple corneal transplants in the past that have failed, or as the first surgery in eyes where a corneal transplant has a very high risk of failure.At CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI, patients can enjoy excellent vision for many years after this surgery.

Do I have to arrange for a cornea donor?
No, Laxmi Eye Bank takes care of this. Laxmi Eye bank is a fully functional, HOTA accredited eye bank. It is the sole eye bank in Raigad district with a large catchment area. Our grief counsellors are not only active in the community and hospitals in Panvel and neighbouring Navi Mumbai area but also deep into the interiors of Raigad district. They carry out awareness and motivational activities routinely to promote Cornea donation after death. This leads to a healthy turnover of donor cornea tissues at Laxmi Eye Bank thus minimising the waiting time for potential recipients.

More about Laxmi Eye Bank…
Laxmi Eye bank is a HOTA accredited eye bank, managed by Laxmi Charitable Trust, which stands as the backbone of the Cornea Transplantation programme at Laxmi Eye Hospital and Charitable Trust hospital. At Laxmi Eye Bank we follow international standards in acquisition of donor tissue, evaluating it, processing it and maintaining records. Using latest technology like the Keratoanalyser to detemine the health of the donor tissue enables the Cornea specialist to match the tissue to a best suited recipient. This combined with the expertise and experience of our highly trained staff and Cornea surgeons ensures a predicatble outcome for our Corneal Transplant patients at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI.


What is a Corneal ulcer?

  • A corneal ulcer is an infection of cornea which is a transparent glass like structure of the eye.
  • Corneal ulcer is caused by germs (micro organisms) which invade the inner layers of cornea and destroy it.
  • A person of any age can get a corneal ulcer and it is potentially a blinding condition

What are the risk factors of Corneal ulcer?

  • Usually injury to the eye is the most common cause which can lead to a corneal ulcer.
  • People who are contact lens users are also at a higher risk of getting a corneal ulcer
  • People with diabetes, dry eyes, repeated lid infections are at a high risk of developing and worsening of corneal ulcer

What are the symptoms of a Corneal ulcer?

  • Redness with sticky discharge may be the only symptom in the initial stages
  • People with corneal ulcer usually have pain and watering.
  • Decreased vision and difficulty in looking at light or bright objects
  • A white spot of infection may be visible on the black part of the eye along with other symptoms

How is Corneal ulcer treated ?
The treatment of Corneal ulcer at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI is administered by a Cornea Specialist who is an eye surgeon specialising in the diseases of the Cornea. The mainstay of treating a corneal ulcer at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI is prescribing the correct medicine for a particular infecting germs or microbes instead of starting a mixed bag of medicines.

Cornea specialists at Laxmi Eye Hospital are trained in techniques of identifying these germs. The in house microbiology setup at Laxmi Eye Hospital, backed by the expertise of our Cornea Specialists ensures that these germs can be promptly identified and optimum treatment can be initiated without having to wait for an external laboratory report.

Advanced and complicated Corneal ulcers may require complex surgical procedures for their treatment. Cornea specialists at Laxmi Eye Hospital, are also trained and experienced in managing such difficult cases. We are well recognized for cornea treatment in Mumbai.

At Laxmi Eye Hospital we are committed to our aim of continued medical care. To facilitate this at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI we employ a state of the art photo documentation system which helps in monitoring progression or worsening of patients with Corneal ulcers.



What is Dry Eye?
Dry Eyes is the catch all term which refers to the abnormalities in the tear layer which normally coats the surface of the eye. A healthy tear layer is needed for clear vision and also to protect the sensitive tissue of the surface of the eye.

What causes dry eye?
The human tear film consists of an aqueous (watery) layer with a thin lipid (oily) layer on top to retard evaporation and a thin mucous (sticky) layer underneath to help it adhere properly to the surface of the eye. Disturbance of any one or more of the three layers interferes with the process of routine lubrication of the surface. These disruptions, if prolonged, may cause one of the conditions that classify to be called dry eye.

What are the conditions which can lead to dry eyes? Who are at risk to develop Dry eyes?

There are many different causes of the conditions collectively referred to as dry eye syndrome, which include; aging, menopause, prolonged computer use, environmental (dry climates, air conditioning, pollution, wind), auto-immune diseases (e.g. Sjögrens Syndrome, RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, LUPUS), surgeries on the eyes or eyelids (e.g. BLEPHAROPLASTY, LASIK, LASEK, PRK, corneal transplants, etc.) and medication side effects.

What are the symptoms of Dry eyes?
Symptoms of dry eyes vary greatly. Some of the most common symptoms are:

  • Feeling like there is something in your eye (foreign body sensation)
  • Scratchy, gritty eyes, smarting or burning eyes
  • Watery eyes
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Eyes tire easily, particularly noticeable from reading, watching TV or using a computer
  • Contact lens discomfort or intolerance
  • Excessive mucus discharge
  • Eyes easily irritated by smoke, allergens, fragrances, etc.
  • Fluctuating vision
  • Blurred vision, particularly first thing in the morning, and/or late in the day
  • Eyelids “stick shut” at night
  • Eyelids feel “heavy”

How is Dry eyes diagnosed? Does it require many complicated tests?
Diagnosis of dry eyes is a simple clinic based procedure. Doctors at Laxmi Eye Hospital can easily perform minor tests in their clinics which take less than 10 minutes to do. Sometimes, the Cornea specialists at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI may advise certain blood tests to determine the cause of dry eyes.

Is there a cure for Dry eyes?
Though there is no permanent cure for Dry eyes, it can be treated by one or more of the following ways:

  • By supplementing the deficient tears in the eyes with artificial tear drops prescribed by the doctors.
  • By preserving the natural tears produced by your eyes from draining into the nose and keeping them in contact with the eye for a longer time by using silicone plugs which block the draining ducts or using heat to permanently block these ducts.
  • By preventing excessive evaporation of the tears. This can be done by lifestyle modification and also by modifying the environment. Using wrapa round glasses to prevent wind drying the eyes, using humidifiers at home in dry conditions, reducing use of air conditioning can all help relieve dry eye symptoms.
  • Other treatments of dry eyes include supplementing the diet with omega 3 fatty acids which are found naturally in Oily fish and Flax seeds. Alternatively, prescription drops like Cyclosporine, or steroids are used to treat dry eye symptoms. However, these medicines should be used according to doctor’s instructions only.
  • Treatment of the general body disease also helps in controlling the dry eye symptoms.



What is Eye allergy (allergic conjunctivitis)?
Eye allergy (allergic conjunctivitis) is an abnormal response of the conjunctiva (translucent membrane covering the white of the eye) to environmental irritants (known as Allergens) which lead to itching, redness, watering and sticky rope like discharge.

What are the Allergens?
The allergen could be any substance which you come in contact with. The most common ones are dust, pollen, mites, moulds and other particulate matter in the air which come in contact with your eyes. However, a person can be allergic to any other substance apart from those mentioned here. Though there are tests to determine a person’s particular allergen it can never be exhaustive enough.

Who can get Eye Allergy?
Eye allergies can affect adults and children alike. The tendency to get eye allergies runs in families. People with Asthma, Allergic dermatitis or Contact dermatitis, recurrent cold and sinusitis are at a higher risk of getting allergic eye disease.

How can Eye Allergy be prevented?
The ideal thing to do would be to completely avoid exposure to the allergen. However, this is not possible most of the times. Hence, lifestyle modification by wearing large frame glasses, avoiding dry dusty and windy situations and keeping other allergic diseases under check will help to suppress manifestations in the eye.

What is the treatment of allergic eye disease?
Allergic eye disease can be controlled by a combination of lifestyle modifications and medicines.

  1. Cold compresses with soaked cloth or ice packs helps to suppress the urge to itch.
  2. Avoiding vigorous eye rubbing is of paramount importance, especially in children, to avoid changes in corneal shape and blurring of vision.
  3. Eye drops are the mainstay of treatment of eye allergies. Sometimes, eye drops have to be used all year long.
  4. Rarely the doctors may prescribe tablets in severe cases.
  5. In children allergic conjunctivitis may gradually subside in the late teen ages and they can be taken off medication.

Doctors at Laxmi Eye Hospital have ample experience in treating allergic eye diseases in both adults and children.



What is Keratoconus?
Keratoconus is an abnormality of the shape of the cornea in which the cornea progressively bulges forward and starts to thin out. This leads to change in the optical properties of the cornea and leads to blurring of vision

Who can get Keratoconus?
Keratoconus has some genetic basis which means it can run in families and affect cousins too. Usually these families have an inherent weakness in the corneal structure which can lead to the abnormal bulging and thinning. However, people with absolutely no family history of Keratoconus can get affected too.

It is also associated with other conditions like

  1. Allergic diseases of the eyes
  2. Hard Contact Lens wear
  3. Retinitis Pigmentosa
  4. Lebers Congenital Amaurosis
  5. Downs Syndrome
  6. Mitral Valve prolapse
  7. Osteogenesis Imperfecta

What are the symptoms of Keratoconus?
Blurring of vision is the most common complaint of patients with Keratoconus. It may also be associated with frequent change of your glass power. Apart from this Keratoconus may also lead to:

  1. Distortion of images
  2. Glare and haloes or rings around light source
  3. Loss of contrast specially in dim light

Rarely, patients with Keratoconus may have sudden onset pain and severe blurring of vision with whitish appearance of Cornea.

Can Keratoconus be prevented?
No. However, the progression of Keratoconus can be delayed by avoiding eye rubbing. Newer treatment modalities can also halt the progression of Keratoconus and arrest it at an initial stage.

How will the doctors know whether my disease is progressing?
Newer technology allows the Cornea specialist to get a perfect picture of the changes in the shape of the diseased cornea at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI. This technology known as Corneal topography, which involves a quick scan of the cornea on specialised machines, allows the Cornea specialist to determine whether your disease is progressing. At Laxmi Eye Hospital we boast of having the most modern machine known as the Oculyser which can quickly get an accurate scan of your eye.

How can Keratoconus be treated?
The goal of Keratoconus treatment is to prevent progression and to take care of the blurring of vision. At Laxmi Eye Hospital a wide variety of treatment options can be availed.We are famous for cornea treatment in Mumbai.

Corneal Collagen Cross Linking: This is a decade old procedure which can increase the strength of the corneal tissue and halt the progression of the disease. At Laxmi Eye Hospital, the Cornea specialists perform this simple procedure to halt the progression of the disease. It involves soaking the cornea in a special medicine followed by exposing it to a safe Ultraviolet light at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI. At Laxmi Eye Hospital the patients can avail this treatment with one of the state-of-the-art machines available.

Spectacles: In the initial stages of the disease spectacles alone may suffice to correct blurring of vision.

Contact Lenses: Contact lenses are an indispensable mode of treatment of Keratoconus. By sitting on the cornea and effectively nullifying the abnormalities of the corneal shape, Contact lenses provide a sharp image formation which is otherwise not possible with spectacles. At Laxmi Eye Hospital we have a dedicated Contact Lens department with technicians and optometrists specially trained in the art and science of fitting advanced contact lenses. At CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI, this allows us to offer our patients a wide basket of Contact Lens options for Keratoconus which can suit their stage of disease and budget. We are well recognized for cornea treatment in Mumbai.

Corneal transplants: Very advanced stages of Keratoconus may require replacing the diseased cornea with a new one from a cornea donor in a procedure called Corneal Transplantation. Cornea specialists at Laxmi Eye Hospital are well versed with all the modern techniques of Corneal transplantation. Having a fully functioning Eye Bank at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI ensures that a patient does not have to wait too long to receive a donor cornea.

At Laxmi Eye Hospital, we believe in tailoring the treatment to our patients’ needs. We strive to offer the most effective, ethical and economical treatment to our patients. We are well recognized for cornea treatment in Mumbai.



What is the Ocular Surface?
The Ocular Surface is that portion of the eye which is in direct contact with the external environment. This mainly involves the tear film, the Cornea and the Conjuctiva (thin, translucent membrane covering the white part of the eye). However, the Eyelids and Tear glands can also be included in the ocular surface as there is constant interaction between all these structures. Maintaining a healthy ocular surface is supremely important to maintain the flawless transparency of the Cornea, and by extension for clear vision.

Which diseases can affect the Ocular surface?
Many diseases can affect the Ocular surface. They can be as innocuous as mild Dry eye or as complex as severe Chemical Burns of the eye or scarring due to Stevens Johnson syndrome or Ocular Cictatricial Pemphigoid. Cornea specialists at Laxmi Eye Hospital are trained under world reknowned scientists and clinicians in the art and science of treating both acute and long term effects of these diseases.

What are the symptoms of Ocular Surface diseases?
Ocular Surface diseases can present with many different symptoms. In the initial stages they can be

  1. Dryness of the eye with a constant redness and irritation
  2. Persistant pain.
  3. Blurring of vision or fluctuating vision
  4. Increased sensitivity to bright and later ambient light
  5. Progressive whitish appearance of the cornea.

In advanced stages patient can suffer from

  1. Inability to open eye
  2. Thick fleshy mass growing from lid to cornea leading to poor eyesite
  3. Cornea or the eye getting hidden completely

At Laxmi Eye Hospital, a detailed examination of all such conditions is carried out in the Cornea department and a detailed treatment plan is formulated. We have best equipment for cornea treatment in Mumbai.

What are the treatment options available for Ocular Surface diseases?
Depending upon the stage and severity of the disease, Ocular surface conditions may be treated at CORNEA TREATMENT IN MUMBAI as follows,

  1. Medically with eye drops and oral medications
  2. Advanced Contact Lenses
  3. Human Amniotic Membrane transplantation
  4. Conjunctival autograft
  5. Ocular surface reconstruction
  6. Stem Cell Transplantation from the patients other healthy eye or living relative or a non related donor
  7. Lid margin and Ocular surface Mucous Membrane Grafts.
  8. Keratoprosthesis (Artificial Cornea Transplantation)

At Laxmi Eye Hospital, these advanced treatments may be availed under the same roof.

What is Eye donation?
The process of donating the eyes of a loved one after his or her death by his or her relatives is called Eye donation. It’s a purely voluntary gesture.

What is the need of Eye Donation?
In India, there are 1.1 million patients who are blind due to an opaque cornea. Most of these patients are young adults and children who have a long life to live. Fortunately, their eyesight can be restored by replacing their opaque corneas with a healthy transparent one from a donor. They can enjoy good eyesight for the rest of their lives because they have healthy and normally functioning inner structures. Thus eye donation is important to give the noble gift of sight to all the cornea blind patients.

What can I do to help?
A common citizen of India, like you, can do a lot to help in this noble cause. First, you can pledge to donate your own eyes after your death and make your wish known to your close relatives. Second, you can donate the eyes of your loved ones after their deaths and encourage your friends and relatives to do so too. It can be made a family tradition. Third, you can provide monetory assistance, as per your capabilities, to your nearest eye bank to continue their activities. Fourth, you can act as a Volunteer and Ambassador for eye donation in your communities and carry out small awareness programmes.

Who can donate eyes?
A person of any gender, age, religion, race, caste and creed can donate eyes after death. Having diseases like Diabetes or high Blood pressure are not roadblocks to eye donation. A person who had had cataract, glaucoma or retinal surgery in their lifetime too, can donate eyes after death.

I was told, ‘A blind man can donate eyes too’. How’s that possible?
That’s perfectly true. There are many reasons of blindness. Diseases of the Retina (light sensitive layer of eye), Optic nerve (connection of eye and brain), or the brain itself can cause blindness. In all these cases the Cornea of the blind person may be absolutely healthy which can be donated after death to benefit others. Imagine a camera with a burnt film or poor sensor. You can still detach its perfectly good lens and attach it on another camera. It’s the same..

What if my relatives did not pledge their eyes during their lifetime?
It does not matter, if you are the rightful heir, next-of-kin or a close relative of the deceased person you can give permission (legal consent) on their behalf, for eye donation. Indian law has a provision known as “Implied Consent” wherein, it is assumed that the deceased was willing to donate eyes unless he/she had expressly forbidden anyone to do so during his/her lifetime.

Is the whole eye of a person removed? Will it lead to disfigurement of the face of the deceased?
Nowadays, very few eye banks remove the whole eyes. At Laxmi Eye Bank, we follow a very precise retreival technique in which we excise only the usable cornea and a small rim of surrounding tissue. Thus there is no disfigurement of the deceased’s face.

Is cornea the only re-usable part of the eye?
No, in some cases we also use the sclera (white outer cover of the eye). The junction of the cornea and sclera is the location of highly specialised cells called stem cells which can be used to treat cases of severe ocular surface injury like Chemical burns of the eye, Stevens Johnson syndrome and other diseases where these cells may be deficient in the recipient.

What is the procedure of eye donation?
If you wish to donate your eyes after death, simply call up your nearest eye bank and ask for their pledge card. You can fill in your name and of all those in your family who wish to donate eyes and submit it to the eye bank. They will provide you a donor card which you need to carry all the time. Most importantly, you should also inform your close relatives of your wish to donate eyes after death.

If you wish to donate eyes of your deceased relative, just call the nearest eyebank. If you don’t know the number, call 1919 which is a national helpline number where you will be guided to your nearest eye bank. Nowadays, this information can be easily accessed over internet through your smartphones. The eye bank team will reach your given address at the earliest and finish the donation procedures in 15-20 minutes only. There are no financial transactions involved.

What are the ‘Do’s and ‘Don’t’s for eye donation?
The eye health deteriorates gradually after a person’s death. It’s best to retrieve donor eyes as soon as possible preferably within 6 hours of death. So if you wish to donate eyes of your dear one, call your nearest eye bank as soon as possible. Apart from this follow these simple steps:

    1. Keep the eyes of the deceased person shut. If possible keep a piece of moist cloth on the eyes.
    2. Switch of any fan which is directly over the deceased person’s body. You can switch on an air conditioner in the room if needed.
    3. Raise the head end of the deceased person by placing 2 pillows under it. This make the retrieval procedure easier.
    4. Keep a copy of the death certifcate/note, as issued by the Certifying Physician, and other relevant past medical documents ready. This helps to

expedite the whole process.In case of hospital death the rough Death Certificate is usually issued by the hospital.

It’s our sincere request to you to be our partner in eradicating Corneal Blindness from India.As we have cornea treatment in Mumbai, we always have need of it.
For further information please feel free to call our Laxmi Eye Bank number.

Laxmi Eye Bank
Uran Road,Panvel – 410206, Maharashtra, India,